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Caterpillar 216B2 Troubleshooting

The Cat 216B2 skid steer loader is powered by 134.1 cu.in (2.2L) Caterpillar C2.2 four-cylinder direct injection naturally aspirated diesel engine with a rated power of 48 hp (35 kW) at 3000 rpm. The Cat 216B2 is equipped with a single-speed hydrostatic transmission, radial-lift loader boom, 80HS continuous roller chains, and 10x16.5 tires. The hydraulic system has a pump with fluid flow rate of 15.6 gpm (60 lpm). The hydraulic pressure is 3335 psi (230 bar). The skid steer loader has a rated operating capacity of 1400 lbs (635 kg) and tipping load of 2800 lbs (1270 kg). The boom lifting force is 3168 lbs (1437 kg), and bucket breakout force is 3747 lbs (1700 kg).

Engine Troubleshooting

Diesel engine hard to start or doesn't start
Air in fuel system - Bleed fuel system.
Clogged fuel filter - Service the filter.
Clogged or defective injection nozzles - Clean or replace injection nozzles.
Water or dirt in fuel system - Drain, flush, and service the system.
Excessive valve clearance - Correct valve clearance needs to be set.
Fuel injection pump is faulty - Repair or change injection pump.

Diesel starts and stalls immediately
Dirty air cleaner - Clean or replace element.
Clogged fuel filter - Change the filter element.
Fuel injection pump is leaking - Repair any leaks.
Clogged or defective injectors - Replace or clean fuel injectors.
Damaged fuel injection pump - Replacement or repair required.

Engine stalls while running
Engine is cold - Warm up the engine as required.
Dirty fuel filter - Clean or change the filter.
Air in the fuel pipes - Bleed the fuel pipes.
Faulty fuel injection nozzles - Clean or change injection nozzles.
Improper setting of fuel injection pump timing - Use the correct fuel injection pump timing adjustment.

Engine stops while idling
Too low idle RPM - Correct the settings.
Fuel injection pump damage - Replace injection pump or repair it.
Clogged or defective injectors - Replace fuel injectors.
Valve clearance is not correct - Check and adjust.

Engine loses power
Dirty air filter - Change or service air filter element.
Defective injection nozzle - Inspect nozzles and replace if necessary.
Improper fuel injection pressure - Test fuel injection pressure and adjust it correctly.
Valve clearance is not correct - Adjust valve clearance according to specifications.
Low idle speed setting is incorrect - Adjust low idle speed.
Fuel lines or hoses are dirty - Fuel lines and hoses need to be cleaned.
Blown cylinder head gasket - Change cylinder head gasket.
Damaged or leaking piston rings - Piston rings replacement required.

Engine is overheated
Lack of engine coolant - Add coolant fluid and inspect the cooling system for leaks.
Low engine oil level - Add oil to the engine crankcase.
Clogged radiator fins or damaged radiator cap - Clean radiator or change cap.
Broken or loose fan belt - Replace as required.
Engine overload - Reduce load on the engine.

Low oil pressure
Oil level is low - Add oil as required.
Oil filter element clogging - Replace or clean engine oil filter element.
Different type of engine oil - Use proper viscosity oil.
Crankshaft bearing oil clearance is incorrect - Replace bearings.
Oil pump malfunction - Install a new pump.

Abnormal engine knocking or noise
Low engine oil level - Add oil to the engine crankcase.
Engine has not warmed up to recommended temperature - Warm up engine as required.
Fuel injection pump timing is wrong - Adjust according to specifications.
Incorrect low idle setting - Adjust as required.
Damaged or clogged injectors - Replace fuel injectors.
Connecting rod is worn or misaligned - Connecting rod needs to be aligned or changed.
Pistons are worn or scored - Pistons need to be replaced.

Drive System Troubleshooting

Machine will not move forward or backward
Low hydraulic fluid level - Fill the system to proper hydraulic fluid level.
Faulty drive chain - Check drive chain and change defective parts.
Input drive shaft malfunctioning - Repair or replace drive shaft.
Defective or worn relief valve - Change or repair relief valve.
Clogged hydraulic filter or suction line - Check, clean, or change if necessary.
Defective foot or hand controls - Change or repair.
Worn drive motor or pump - Repair or replace faulty component.

Lack of power
Plugged hydraulic oil filter - Check, clean, or change as necessary.
Relief valve is open or worn - Close or change relief valve.
Transmission components are damaged or faulty - Inspect and replace defective parts.
Input drive shaft is defective - Service or change faulty drive shaft.
Air in hydraulic system - Need to bleed air.

Drive system keeps overheating
Low hydraulic fluid level - Add fluid as required.
Hydraulic fluid filter is dirty - Change or service hydraulic filter.
Relief valve worn or defective - Repair or change.
Hydraulic motor or drive pump is defective - Repair or replace faulty component.
Dirty oil cooler - Clean cooling fins as required.
Drive system overload - Reduce loading.

Drive system makes excessive noise
Oil viscosity is too heavy - Use oil of correct viscosity.
Air trapped in hydraulic system - Need to bleed air.
Drive pump or hydraulic motor is damaged - Check and repair if required.
Mechanical parts of drive system are worn or damaged - Inspect drive system and replace faulty parts.

Hydraulics Troubleshooting

Hydraulic system overheated
Hydraulic pressure incorrectly adjusted - Correct adjustment is required.
Unadjusted or defective main relief valve - Adjust relief valve or change if required.
Hydraulic oil contamination - Change hydraulic oil.
Hydraulic oil level is low - Add oil to the hydraulic system.
Worn hydraulic oil pump - Repair or install new hydraulic pump.

Lift arm fails to drop or lift
Lift controls are faulty - Replace or repair.
Hydraulic pump not working - Replace or repair pump if necessary.
Hydraulic control valve failure - Install a new valve or repair it.
Hydraulic cylinder is faulty - Repair or install a new lift cylinder.
Hydraulic fluid is insufficient - Fill up the hydraulic fluid.

Bucket can't tilt
Defective bucket controls - Repair or replace.
Defective hydraulic pump - Repair or change pump if required.
Defective hydraulic control valve - Change or repair hydraulic valve.
Hydraulic bucket cylinder is defective - Repair or install a new cylinder.
Hydraulic fluid is insufficient - Add fluid as required.

Bucket or lift arm moves slowly
Faulty hydraulic oil pump - Test pump flow rate and replace pump if required.
Hydraulic cylinder oil leakage - Correct leakage by changing the seals.
Hydraulic oil is insufficient - Fill the system to proper hydraulic oil level.
Hydraulic control valve is faulty or out of adjustment - Adjust properly or repair.
Hydraulic pressure is low - Adjust it correctly.

Bucket or boom is jerky
Air trapped in hydraulic system - Air bleeding is required.
Hydraulic oil filter element clogging - Service or replace the hydraulic filter.
Hydraulic fluid is contaminated - Change hydraulic fluid.
Cylinder rod or tube is scuffed - Replace failed component.

Excessive hydraulic pump noise
Hydraulic leaks or lack of oil - Refill hydraulic oil or repair leaks in system.
Hydraulic filter is dirty - Clean or install new filter.
Suction line is clogged - Clean suction line as required.
Air enters the pump - Remove air from hydraulics.
Pump parts are damaged - Replace or rebuild the pump.

Electrical Troubleshooting

Battery will not charge
Electrical cable connections are corroded or loose - Clean or tighten wiring connections.
Defective battery terminal clamps - Replace terminal clamps.
Battery is worn - Use a new battery.
Loose or defective belt - Adjust belt tension or install a new belt.

Starter turning slow
Low battery voltage - Battery needs to be recharged.
Battery won’t hold charge - Service battery or replace it.
Terminals are faulty or battery cables are disconnected - Check wiring connections and replace or clean terminals.

Starter will not crank
Battery is drained or defective - Recharge or change battery.
Battery wires are disconnected or incorrectly connected - Check wires and connect correctly.
Battery power is low - Battery is drained, charge it.
Starter motor failing - Replace or repair starter.