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Caterpillar 216B Troubleshooting

The Cat 216B skid steer loader is powered by 134.1 cu.in (2.2L) Caterpillar 3024C 4-cylinder direct injection naturally aspirated diesel engine with a rated power of 49 hp (37 kW) at 2600 rpm. The Cat 216B is equipped with a single-speed transmission, wet multi disc brakes, 80HS continuous roller chains, and 7.00x15 or 10x16.5 tires. The hydraulic system has a pump with fluid flow rate of 15.6 gpm (60 lpm). The hydraulic pressure is 3100 psi (214 bar). The skid steer loader has a rated operating capacity of 1400 lbs (635 kg) and tipping load of 2800 lbs (1270 kg). The boom lifting force is 3057 lbs (1385 kg), and bucket breakout force is 3787 lbs (1715 kg).

Engine Troubleshooting

Engine starts hard or won't start
Air in fuel tank - Bleed fuel tank.
Clogged fuel filter - Filter maintenance required.
Burnt or defective injection nozzle - Check injection nozzles and replace if required.
Water in the fuel system - Change fuel and repair fuel system.
Valve clearance is out of adjustment - Check and adjust.
Fuel injection pump is not operating properly - Repair or install a new fuel pump.

Engine starts and stops suddenly
Clogged air cleaner - Clean or replace air cleaner element.
Dirty fuel filter - Clean or change the filter.
Poor fuel injection pump tightness - Look for any leaks of fuel pump, tighten it fast.
Dirty or defective injectors - Clean or replace fuel injectors.
Fuel injection pump is not working correctly - Rebuild or install a new injection pump.

Engine shuts off suddenly while running
Engine is not fully warmed up - Warm up to required temperature.
Dirty fuel filter - Replace the filter element.
Air in the fuel pipes - Bleed the fuel pipes.
Defective or clogged injection nozzle - Replace injection nozzles.
Fuel injection pump timing is wrong - Adjust as recommended.

Engine stops at idle
Incorrect low idle setting - Correct low idle adjustment.
Fuel injection pump malfunction - Install a new pump or rebuild.
Clogged or defective injectors - Test and replace fuel injectors if necessary.
Improper valve clearance - Correct valve clearance.

Diesel engine is losing power
Clogged air cleaner - Clean or replace air cleaner element.
Clogged injection nozzle - If necessary, replace with a new nozzle.
Incorrect fuel injection pressure - Test fuel injection pressure and adjust it correctly.
Valve clearance is wrong - Adjust valve clearance.
Incorrect low idle speed adjustment - Correct low idle settings.
Dirt in the fuel lines or hoses - Fuel hoses and lines must be clean.
Cylinder-head gasket is broken - Cylinder-head gasket replacement required.
Damaged or leaking piston rings - Piston rings replacement required.

Engine is overheated
Insufficient coolant fluid - Top up coolant fluid and check system for leaks.
Lack of engine oil - Need to add engine oil.
Dirty radiator fins or faulty radiator cap - Clean radiator or install new cap.
Loose or damaged fan belt - Belt change is required.
Engine overloaded - Load reducing is recommended.

Oil pressure is low
Low oil level - Add oil to the engine crankcase.
Oil filter is dirty - Clean or replace engine oil filter element.
Different type of engine oil - Use proper viscosity oil.
Incorrect crankshaft bearing oil clearance - Bearings need to be reinstalled.
Defective oil pump - Repair or change.

Engine noise or knocking
Engine oil level is insufficient - Check oil level and add oil as required.
Engine not warmed up - Engine is not warmed up to the required temperature.
Fuel injection pump timing is wrong - Adjust the pump as required.
Improperly adjusted low idle speed - Adjust low idling as recommended.
Clogged or defective injectors - Change or clean fuel injectors.
Connecting rod is defective or misaligned - Need to align or replace the connecting rod.
Scored or worn pistons - Have pistons replaced.

Drive System Troubleshooting

Machine does not move forward or backward
Insufficient hydraulic fluid - Fill up the hydraulic fluid.
Worn drive chain - Inspect drive chain and replace faulty parts.
Input drive shaft is not working properly - Rebuild or change.
Stuck relief valve - Change or repair relief valve.
Hydraulic filter or suction line is clogged - Check, clean, or change if necessary.
Defective hand or foot controls - Check and repair as required.
Drive pump or motor malfunction - Replace or repair faulty component.

Low power
Plugged hydraulic oil filter - Check, clean, or change as necessary.
Faulty or opened relief valve - Change or close relief valve.
Transmission parts are worn or defective - Inspect and change defective parts.
Input drive shaft is stuck - Change or repair faulty drive shaft.
Air in the hydraulic system - Bleed air from hydraulic system.

Drive system overheats
Hydraulic oil is insufficient - Check and refill the hydraulic oil.
Dirty hydraulic fluid filter - Change hydraulic filter.
Stuck relief valve - Repair or replace.
Worn hydraulic motor or drive pump - Change or repair faulty component.
Dirty oil cooler - Clean the cooling fins.
Transmission overloading - Reduce loading.

Excessive noise
Oil viscosity is wrong - Use oil of proper viscosity.
Air leaks in hydraulic system - Bleed air from system.
Worn hydraulic motor or drive pump - Replace or repair faulty component.
Mechanical parts of drive system are damaged or worn - Inspect the parts for worn or defect and repair as needed.

Hydraulics Troubleshooting

Hydraulic system overheats
Hydraulic pressure incorrectly adjusted - Correct adjustment is required.
Main relief valve improper adjustment or failure - Replace or set up the relief valve.
Hydraulic oil is dirty - Fill up with fresh hydraulic oil.
Lack of hydraulic fluid - Need to add fluid.
Hydraulic pump is worn - Replace or repair pump if necessary.

Boom can't lift or drop
Lift controls malfunction - Change or repair.
Hydraulic pump is broken - Repair or install new hydraulic pump.
Hydraulic control valve is defective - Repair or change the valve.
Faulty hydraulic cylinder - Install a new boom cylinder or repair it.
Hydraulic oil level low - Need to add oil.

Bucket can't tilt
Faulty bucket tilt controls - Repair or replace.
Defective hydraulic pump - Repair or change pump if required.
Damaged hydraulic control valve - Install a new valve or repair it.
Hydraulic bucket cylinder is broken - Repair or replace cylinder.
Low hydraulic oil level - Need to add oil.

Bucket or lift arm moves slowly
Hydraulic pump is defective - Check the pump capacity and replace pump if required.
Oil leaks from hydraulic cylinder - Cylinder seals need to be replaced.
Insufficient hydraulic oil - Checking hydraulic oil level and add if necessary.
Damaged or incorrect adjusted hydraulic control valve - Repair or adjust properly.
Hydraulic system loosing pressure - Adjust it correctly.

Bucket or boom is working jerkily
Air in hydraulic system - Need to bleed air.
Plugged hydraulic oil filter - Replace or clean the filter.
Hydraulic fluid is contaminated - Change hydraulic fluid.
Cylinder rod or tube is scuffed - Replace failed component.

Hydraulic pump makes excessive noise
Hydraulic system leaking or not enough oil - Correct hydraulic leaks or top up oil as needed.
Hydraulic filter clogging - Change or clean oil filter.
Suction line clogging - Suction line must be serviced.
Pump is sucking air - Bleed air.
Pump components are worn out - Replace or rebuild the pump.

Electrical Troubleshooting

Battery won’t charge
Electrical cable connections are loose or corroded - Clean or tighten wiring connections.
Defective battery terminal clamps - Terminal clamps should be changed.
Battery dead cell - Battery change required.
Belt is defective or loose - Belt needs to be adjusted or changed.

Starter cranks slowly
Low battery output voltage - Recharge the battery.
Battery does not hold charge - Service battery or replace it.
Wires are disconnected or battery terminals are corroded - Check cables and clean or change terminals.

Starter doesn't crank
Battery is discharged or defective - Change or recharge battery.
Battery wiring is disconnected or improperly connected - Inspect wiring and connect as required.
Battery voltage is low - Low battery charging, charge as required.
Defective starter motor - Starter needs to be changed.