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John Deere 280 Troubleshooting

The John Deere 280 Series 2 skid steer loader driveline system components: a 276 cu.in (4.5L) John Deere 4045T 4-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine with a rated power of 85 hp (63.4 kW), and 1-speed or 2-speed hydrostatic transmission. The hydraulic system has a pump with a rated capacity of 28 gal/min (106 l/min) or 41.5 gal/min (157.2 l/min). The John Deere 280 Series 2 is equipped with vertical-lift loader boom, 100HD drive chains, and 14.00x17.5 tires. The loader has a boom breakout force of 6650 lbs (3015 kg) and bucket breakout force of 11600 lbs (5260 kg). The rated operating capacity is 3200 lbs (1450 kg), and tipping load is 7000 lbs (3175 kg).

Engine Troubleshooting

Engine hard to start or doesn't start
Air in the fuel pipes - Bleed the fuel pipes.
Fuel filter element clogging - Change filter element.
Fuel injection nozzles are faulty or clogged - Clean or change injection nozzles.
Water in the fuel system - Change fuel and repair fuel system.
Excessive valve clearance - Adjustment procedure required.
Damaged fuel injection pump - Rebuild or install a new injection pump.

Diesel starts but immediately stops
Dirty air cleaner - Service or replace air cleaner.
Fuel filter plugging - Clean or replace the filter.
Problems with fuel injection pump tightness - Inspect fuel injection pump for leaks.
Fuel injectors are faulty or clogged - Inspect fuel injectors and change as required.
Fuel injection pump is defective - Replace injection pump or repair it.

Diesel shuts off while driving
Engine is not preheated - Warm up to required temperature.
Dirty fuel filter - Change the filter element.
There is air in the fuel system - Bleed the system.
Clogged or defective injection nozzles - Check and replace nozzles if required.
Incorrect adjustment of fuel injection pump timing - Set up as recommended.

Engine stops when idling
Wrong adjustment of low idle speed - Adjust low idling as recommended.
Fuel injection pump malfunction - Repair or change injection pump.
Fuel injectors are dirty or defective - Inspect fuel injectors and change as required.
Valve clearance is wrong - Have it adjusted.

Engine lacks power
Clogged air cleaner - Clean or replace air cleaner element.
Fuel injection nozzles are damaged or dirty - Replace injection nozzles.
Incorrect fuel injection pressure - Adjust to proper pressure.
Incorrect valve clearance - Have it adjusted.
Low idle speed setting is incorrect - Correct low idle settings.
Fuel lines or hoses are clogged - Service fuel lines and hoses.
Worn cylinder head gasket - Gasket should be replaced.
Worn or broken piston rings - Piston rings replacement required.

Engine overheats
Not enough coolant - Top up coolant fluid and check system for leaks.
Not enough engine oil - Fill up the oil to required level.
Radiator fins are dirty or radiator cap is defective - Change cap or clean radiator.
Loose or defective fan belt - If necessary, replace the belt.
Diesel engine is overloaded - Load reducing is recommended.

Oil pressure is insufficient
Engine oil level low - Check and refill the oil.
Dirty oil filter - Replace or service engine oil filter.
Wrong oil viscosity - Fill up with the correct oil viscosity.
Main bearing oil clearance is excessive - Install new bearings.
Defective oil pump - Replace as required.

Engine knocks or noises
Engine oil level low - Check and refill engine oil.
Coolant temperature is low - Engine is not warmed up to the required temperature.
Improper fuel injection timing - Use the correct fuel injection pump timing adjustment.
Wrong adjustment of low idle speed - Correct the settings.
Dirty or defective injectors - Clean or replace fuel injectors.
Connecting rod is misaligned or worn - Connecting rod needs to be aligned or changed.
Pistons are scored or worn - Install new pistons.

Drive System Troubleshooting

Machine is not moving in one direction or either direction
Insufficient hydraulic fluid - Checking hydraulic fluid level and add if necessary.
Drive chain is damaged - Inspect drive chain and replace defective components.
Stuck relief valve - Repair or replace relief valve.
Dirty suction line or hydraulic filter - Change hydraulic filter or service suction line.
Defective or worn foot or hand controls - Change or repair.
Drive pump or motor is damaged - Inspect and change as required.

Loss of power
Plugged hydraulic oil filter - Replace or clean hydraulic filter.
Worn or open relief valve - Close or replace relief valve.
Worn or defective transmission parts - Check and change faulty components.
Worn input drive shaft - Repair or replace faulty drive shaft.
Hydraulic system is leaking air - Bleed hydraulic system.

Drive system is overheated
Low hydraulic oil level - Fill the system to proper hydraulic oil level.
Plugged hydraulic fluid filter - Check, clean, or change as necessary.
Relief valve is damaged or worn - Relief valve need to be replaced or repair.
Drive pump or hydraulic motor malfunction - Change or repair faulty component.
Oil cooler is clogged - Cooling fins need to be cleaned.
Drive system overload - Reduce the load.

Drive system is noisy
Wrong oil viscosity - Use the specified type of oil.
Air trapped in hydraulic system - Air bleeding is required.
Defective drive pump or hydraulic motor - Replace or repair faulty component.
Worn or defective mechanical parts of drive system - Check the components for worn or defect and replace if necessary.

Hydraulics Troubleshooting

Hydraulic system overheated
Hydraulic pressure incorrectly adjusted - Set pressure correctly.
Misadjusted or defective main relief valve - Replace or set up the relief valve.
Contaminated hydraulic fluid - Fill up with fresh hydraulic fluid.
Lack of hydraulic fluid - Add fluid to the hydraulic system.
Faulty hydraulic oil pump - Repair or replace pump if necessary.

Boom cannot be lowered or raised
Lift controls malfunction - Repair or replace.
Hydraulic pump not working - Install new pump or repair it.
Hydraulic control valve failure - Install a new valve or repair it.
Defective hydraulic cylinder - Change or repair lift cylinder.
Hydraulic oil level low - Fill the system to proper hydraulic oil level.

Bucket fails to tilt
Defective bucket controls - Change or repair.
Hydraulic pump not working - Repair or change pump if required.
Hydraulic control valve malfunction - Repair or change hydraulic valve.
Hydraulic bucket cylinder is broken - Change or repair cylinder.
Hydraulic oil is insufficient - Fill the system to proper hydraulic oil level.

Slow bucket or lift arm action
Faulty hydraulic oil pump - Test the pump performance and change pump if required.
Oil leaks from hydraulic cylinder - Repair leak by replacing the seals.
Hydraulic fluid level low - Fill the system to proper hydraulic fluid level.
Hydraulic control valve is not set properly or defective - Repair or set properly.
Hydraulic pressure has dropped - Correct adjustment is required.

Jerky operation of the bucket or boom
Air in the hydraulic system - Air bleeding is required.
Hydraulic oil filter is clogged - Service or change the hydraulic filter.
Hydraulic fluid is contaminated - Hydraulic fluid change required.
Cylinder tube or rod is scored - Change worn component.

Excessive hydraulic pump noise
Insufficient oil level or leaking hydraulic system - Repair hydraulic leaks or add oil as required.
Hydraulic filter is clogged - Service or replace hydraulic filter.
Dirty suction line - Service the suction line.
Air trapped in hydraulic pump - Bleed air from hydraulics.
Damaged pump components - Change or rebuild pump.

Electrical Troubleshooting

Battery cannot be charged
Electrical wire connections are corroded or loose - Tighten or service connections.
Faulty electrical terminal connectors - Change terminal connectors.
Dead cell in battery - Change the battery.
Damaged or loose belt - Replace belt or adjust belt tension.

Starter motor cranks slow
Low battery voltage - Battery is drained, charge it.
Battery is draining quickly - Service or change the battery.
Disconnected wires or corroded battery terminals - Check wiring and clean or replace terminals.

Starter does not work
Battery is low or faulty - Replace or charge as required.
Wiring is incorrectly connected or disconnected - Inspect wiring and connect correctly.
Low battery output - Recharge the battery.
Faulty starter motor - Change or repair starter.