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Caterpillar 216B3 Troubleshooting

The Caterpillar 216B3 skid steer loader driveline system components: a 134.1 cu.in (2.2L) Cat C2.2 four-cylinder direct injection liquid cooled diesel engine with a rated power of 48 hp (35 kW), and 1-speed hydrostatic transmission. The hydraulic system has a pump with a rated capacity of 16 gal/min (61 l/min). The system relief pressure is 3335 psi (230 bar). The Cat 216B3 is equipped with radial-lift loader boom, 80HS continuous roller chains, and 10x16.5 tires. The skid steer loader has a boom lifting force of 3168 lbs (1437 kg) and bucket breakout force of 4083 lbs (1852 kg). The rated operating capacity is 1400 lbs (635 kg), and tipping load is 2800 lbs (1852 kg).

Engine Troubleshooting

Engine difficult to start or doesn't start
There is air in the fuel system - Bleed the system.
Dirty fuel filter - Clean the filter element.
Clogged or burnt injection nozzle - Test injection nozzles and change if necessary.
Dirt or water in fuel system - Drain water or flush dirt from the system.
The valve clearance is incorrect - Correct valve clearance needs to be set.
Fuel injection pump damage - Repair or replace injection pump.

Engine starts but stalls immediately
Clogged air cleaner - Clean or change cleaner.
Dirty fuel filter - Replace filter element.
Poor fuel injection pump tightness - Look for any leaks of fuel pump, tighten it fast.
Fuel injectors are faulty or clogged - Replace fuel injectors.
Defective fuel injection pump - Repair or install new pump.

Diesel shuts off while driving
Engine is not warmed up to required temperature - Warm up the engine as required.
Fuel filter is plugged - Clean or replace the filter.
Air in the fuel lines - Bleed the fuel lines.
Dirty or damaged injection nozzles - Replace injection nozzles.
Incorrect adjustment of fuel injection pump timing - Use the correct fuel injection pump timing adjustment.

Engine stalls while idling
Incorrectly adjusted low idle speed - Correct the settings.
Faulty fuel injection pump - Replacement or repair required.
Damaged or clogged injectors - Test and replace fuel injectors if necessary.
The valve clearance is incorrect - Adjust valve clearance.

Engine power loss
Air filter is clogged - Install new air filter element.
Clogged or burnt injection nozzle - Test injection nozzles and change if necessary.
Improper fuel injection pressure - Correct the pressure settings.
Incorrect valve clearance - Need to adjust valve clearance.
Too low idle RPM - Test and adjust.
Dirty fuel hoses or lines - Clean fuel lines and hoses.
Cylinder head gasket is damaged - Install a new gasket.
Piston rings are leaking or defective - Install new piston rings.

Engine overheating
Not enough coolant - Fill the cooling system and check components for leaks or other faults.
Insufficient engine oil - Add oil to the engine crankcase.
Clogged radiator fins or leaking radiator cap - Replace cap or clean radiator.
Fan belt is worn or faulty - Belt change is required.
Diesel engine overloaded - Reduce engine load.

Insufficient oil pressure
Lack of oil - Checking oil level and add if necessary.
Dirty oil filter element - Replace or clean engine oil filter element.
Different type of engine oil - Use proper viscosity oil.
Crankshaft bearing has incorrect oil clearance - Change bearings.
Oil pump is defective - Remove and inspect oil pump.

Engine noise or knocking
Not enough engine oil - Fill up the oil to required level.
Engine is not preheated - Normalize the temperature by warming up the engine.
Fuel injection pump timing is wrong - Set the fuel pump timing correctly.
Low idle speed adjustment is incorrect - Correct low idle adjustment.
Fuel injectors are dirty or defective - Change or clean fuel injectors.
Connecting rod is defective or not aligned - Align or replace connecting rod.
Pistons are broken or worn - Install new pistons.

Drive System Troubleshooting

Machine will not move forward or backward
Hydraulic oil level is low - Check and refill the hydraulic oil.
Damaged drive chain - Inspect drive chain and replace defective components.
Damaged input drive shaft - Replace drive shaft.
Relief valve is damaged or worn - Repair or replace relief valve.
Hydraulic filter or suction line is clogged - Change hydraulic filter or service suction line.
Foot or hand controls are defective - Replace or repair.
Worn drive motor or pump - Replace or repair faulty component.

Power is too low
Hydraulic oil filter is clogged - Check, clean, or change as necessary.
Relief valve is opened or defective - Replace or close relief valve.
Transmission parts are worn or defective - Inspect and change faulty parts.
Stuck input drive shaft - Replace or service the drive shaft.
Air trapped in hydraulic system - Need to bleed air.

Drive system overheating
Insufficient hydraulic fluid - Check and refill the hydraulic fluid.
Dirty hydraulic fluid filter - Change or clean hydraulic filter.
Defective or worn relief valve - Repair or change.
Damaged drive pump or hydraulic motor - Check and repair if required.
Hydraulic oil cooler is dirty - Clean the cooling fins.
Drive system overload - Reduce the load.

Excessive noise
Oil viscosity is wrong - Drain and refill with correct oil.
There is air in the hydraulic system - Need to bleed air.
Drive pump or hydraulic motor is damaged - Replace or repair faulty component.
Mechanical components of drive system are worn or damaged - Check the components for defect or damage and change if necessary.

Hydraulics Troubleshooting

Hydraulic system overheating
Hydraulic pressure is not adjusted correctly - Adjust pressure correctly.
Main relief valve improper adjustment or failure - Adjust the valve or replace if necessary.
Hydraulic oil is dirty - Hydraulic oil change required.
Not enough hydraulic fluid in the system - Fill the hydraulic system with oil.
Hydraulic pump is defective - Change or repair hydraulic pump if required.

Lift arm cannot be raised or lowered
Lift controls malfunction - Repair or change.
Hydraulic pump not working - Install new pump or repair it.
Hydraulic control valve failure - Repair or change the valve.
Hydraulic cylinder is defective - Repair or change hydraulic cylinder.
Hydraulic oil is insufficient - Need to add oil.

Bucket tilt does not work
Bucket tilt controls malfunction - Repair or replace.
Hydraulic pump is broken - Repair or install new hydraulic pump.
Damaged hydraulic control valve - Install a new valve or repair it.
Bucket cylinder malfunction - Repair or change cylinder.
Insufficient hydraulic oil - Need to add oil.

Bucket or lift arm runs slowly
Worn hydraulic oil pump - Check the pump capacity and replace pump if required.
Leaking hydraulic cylinder - Cylinder seals need to be replaced.
Hydraulic fluid is insufficient - Fill up the hydraulic fluid.
Hydraulic control valve is faulty or out of adjustment - Repair or set properly.
Low hydraulic pressure - Correct setting is required.

Lift arm or bucket is moving jerkily
Air in hydraulic system - Bleed air from hydraulic system.
Clogged hydraulic oil filter element - Clean or change the filter.
Hydraulic oil is contaminated - The oil must be changed.
Scored cylinder tube or rod - Change failed component.

Hydraulic pump is excessively noisy
Hydraulic system leaking or not enough oil - Repair hydraulic leaks or add oil as required.
Hydraulic filter is clogged - Change or clean oil filter.
Clogged suction line - Suction line must be serviced.
Air enters the pump - Air bleeding is required.
Damaged pump parts - Install new hydraulic pump or rebuild it.

Electrical Troubleshooting

Battery is not charging
Electrical cable connections are loose or corroded - Service or tighten cable connections.
Battery terminal clamps are faulty - Change terminal clamps.
Battery bad cell - Replace the battery.
Damaged or loose belt - Need to adjust belt tension or replace belt.

Starter turns slow
Low battery power - Battery is drained, charge it.
Battery discharges quickly - Service or replace the battery.
Battery terminals are corroded or wires are disconnected - Connect wiring properly or install new terminals.

Starter is not cranking
Battery is drained or defective - Recharge or replace battery.
Disconnected or improperly connected wiring harness - Inspect battery wiring harness and connect as required.
Battery voltage is low - Battery needs to be recharged.
Starter motor failure - Starter needs to be replaced.