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Caterpillar 259D Troubleshooting

The Cat 259D compact track loader driveline system components: a 203.1 cu.in (3.3L) Cat C3.3B DIT 4-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine with a rated power of 72.7 hp (54.2 kW), and 2-speed hydro transmission. The hydraulic system has a pump with a rated flow of 20 gpm (76 lpm). The system pressure is 3335 psi (230 bar). The Cat 259D is equipped with vertical-lift loader boom, axial-piston drive pumps, and 12.6" (320 mm) or 15.7" (400 mm) steel embedded rubber tracks. The loader has a max lift height of 121" (3.08 m) to hinge pin and dump height of 89.9" (2.29 m). The rated operating capacity is 2030 lbs (920 kg), and tipping load is 5800 lbs (2630 kg).

Engine Troubleshooting

Engine hard to start or won't start
Air in the fuel system - Air bleeding.
Fuel filter element clogging - Replace the filter element.
Fuel injection nozzles are dirty or defective - Install a new kit of correctly balanced nozzles.
Water or dirt in fuel system - Drain, flush, and service the system.
The valve clearance is not adjusted - Have it adjusted.
Fuel injection pump is broken - Rebuild or replace pump.

Diesel starts but immediately stops
Air cleaner is clogged - Service or replace air cleaner.
Fuel filter element is clogged - Clean or change the filter.
Fuel injection pump is leaking - Repair any leaks.
Fuel injectors are dirty or defective - Change or clean fuel injectors.
Fuel injection pump is damaged - Change or repair the pump.

Engine stalls during operation
Engine is cold - Warm up the engine.
Clogged fuel filter - Replace filter element.
Air in the fuel system - Air bleeding.
Clogged injection nozzle - Test injection nozzles and change if necessary.
Fuel injection pump timing is wrong - Adjust as recommended.

Engine stops while idle
Low idle speed set incorrectly - Adjustment required.
Fuel injection pump damage - Install a new pump or rebuild.
Clogged or defective injectors - Clean or replace fuel injectors.
The valve clearance is incorrect - Correct valve clearance needs to be set.

Engine power is too low
Plugged air cleaner - Service or replace air cleaner.
Faulty fuel injection nozzles - Service or change injection nozzles.
Incorrect fuel injection pressure - Check the fuel injection pressure and adjust if necessary.
The valve clearance is incorrect - Check and adjust.
Incorrectly set low idle speed - Test and adjust.
Fuel hoses or lines clogging - Service fuel hoses and lines.
Cylinder head gasket defective - Replace cylinder head gasket.
Leaking or defective piston rings - Piston rings replacement required.

Engine overheats
Low coolant level - Top up coolant fluid and check system for leaks.
Lack of engine oil - Fill up the engine oil.
Radiator core is clogged or radiator cap is leaking - Change cap or clean radiator.
Fan belt is loose or defective - If necessary, replace the belt.
Engine is under excessive load - Reduce engine load.

Oil pressure too low
Not enough oil in the engine - Check and refill the oil.
Oil filter is clogged - Clean or replace engine oil filter element.
Wrong oil viscosity - Drain and refill with oil of correct grade and viscosity.
Excessive crankshaft bearing oil clearance - Replace bearings.
Worn oil pump - Repair or change.

Engine knocking sound or abnormal noise
Lack of engine oil - Check and refill engine oil.
Engine is not fully warmed up - Normalize the temperature by warming up the engine.
Improper setting of fuel injection pump timing - Adjust the pump as required.
Low idle speed setting is not correct - Adjust low idling as recommended.
Damaged or clogged injectors - Inspect fuel injectors and change as required.
Connecting rod is not aligned or defective - Align or change connecting rod.
Worn or scored pistons - Have pistons replaced.

Drive System Troubleshooting

Machine does not move forward or backward
Hydraulic fluid level low - Add fluid as required.
Undercarriage tracks are jammed or defective - Remove jamming or repair tracks.
Defective relief valve - Service or change relief valve.
Hydraulic filter or suction line is clogged - Check, clean, or change if necessary.
Hand or foot controls malfunction - Change or repair.
Worn drive motor or pump - Repair or change faulty component.

Machine won't drive straight or drives jerkily
Track mechanism is jammed or defective - Repair or remove jamming.
Tracks are faulty or improperly tensioned - Adjust track tension as required or replace tracks.
Track frame is blocked with debris, dirt, or foreign objects - Clean undercarriage track frame, remove foreign objects and debris.

Lack of power
Dirty hydraulic oil filter - Check, clean, or replace as required.
Damaged or opened relief valve - Replace or close relief valve.
Transmission components are worn or defective - Inspect and replace faulty parts.
Input drive shaft failure - Faulty drive shaft need to be replaced or repair.
Air in the hydraulic system - Need to bleed air.

Overheated drive system
Hydraulic oil level is low - Fill the system to proper hydraulic oil level.
Clogged hydraulic fluid filter - Change or service hydraulic filter.
Stuck relief valve - Service or change relief valve.
Worn hydraulic motor or drive pump - Check and repair if required.
Oil cooler is clogged - Clean the cooling fins.
Drive system overloaded continuously - Load needs to be reduced.

Excessive noise
Oil viscosity is too heavy - Use oil of correct viscosity.
Air in hydraulic system - Air bleeding is required.
Damaged drive pump or hydraulic motor - Repair or replace faulty component.
Defective or worn mechanical parts of drive system - Check drive system and change faulty components.

Hydraulics Troubleshooting

Hydraulic system overheating
Hydraulic pressure is incorrect - Correct setting is required.
Main relief valve is damaged or adjusted improperly - Adjust the valve or replace if necessary.
Hydraulic oil is dirty - Change hydraulic oil.
Hydraulic fluid level is low - Fill the hydraulic system with oil.
Hydraulic pump is worn - Replace or repair pump if necessary.

Boom fails to lift or drop
Lift controls are damaged - Inspect and repair if necessary.
Hydraulic pump not working - Repair or replace pump if necessary.
Faulty hydraulic control valve - Install a new hydraulic valve or repair it.
Hydraulic cylinder failure - Change or repair lift cylinder.
Low hydraulic fluid level - Add fluid as required.

Bucket is not working
Bucket tilt controls are defective - Repair or change.
Hydraulic pump malfunction - Repair or replace pump if necessary.
Faulty hydraulic control valve - Repair or change hydraulic valve.
Broken bucket cylinder - Repair or change cylinder.
Insufficient hydraulic oil - Checking hydraulic oil level and add if necessary.

Slow boom or bucket action
Faulty hydraulic oil pump - Check pump capacity and change if necessary.
Leaking hydraulic cylinder - Replace cylinder piston seals.
Hydraulic oil level low - Checking hydraulic oil level and add if necessary.
Hydraulic control valve is faulty or out of adjustment - Repair or set properly.
Low hydraulic pressure - Correct adjustment is required.

Lift arm or bucket movements are jerky
Air in the hydraulic system - Air bleeding is required.
Dirty hydraulic oil filter - Clean or replace the filter.
Hydraulic fluid is contaminated - Hydraulic fluid change required.
Cylinder tube or rod scoring - Change damaged component.

Excessive hydraulic pump noise
Hydraulic leakage or low oil level - Correct hydraulic leaks or top up oil as needed.
Hydraulic filter is clogged - Service or change hydraulic filter.
Dirty suction line - Suction line needs to be cleaned.
Air trapped in hydraulic pump - Bleed air from hydraulics.
Pump parts are worn out - Change or rebuild pump.

Electrical Troubleshooting

Battery cannot be charged
Corroded or loose cable connections - Tighten or clean connections.
Electrical terminal connectors are defective - Replace terminal connectors.
Dead cell in battery - Install a new battery.
Belt is loose or defective - Belt needs to be adjusted or replaced.

Starter motor turns slow
Low battery voltage - Recharge the battery.
Battery is draining quickly - Service charging system or change battery.
Battery terminals are corroded or wires are disconnected - Connect wires correctly or change terminals.

Starter is not working
Battery is low or faulty - Charge or replace the battery.
Disconnected or incorrectly connected wires - Inspect battery wires and connect correctly.
Battery voltage is low - Charge the battery.
Defective starter motor - Starter should be changed.